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Lyceum 2021 | Together Towards Tomorrow

Learn how the Solgold Australia PLC site team in Ecuador is working to understand the porphyry systems at Cascabel (Alpala Project) using a combination of Seequent solutions.

They have set up Leapfrog Edge to link directly and dynamically with the Leapfrog Geo project, enabling it to be rapidly updated with new information and produce live resource estimates. Using Seequent Central for model management supports a reliable and shared single source of truth, which the Head Office in Brisbane and the team on the ground in Ecuador can use to collaborate in real time.



Stephen Law
Senior Technical Lead, Seequent

Benn Whistler
Technical Services Manager, SolGold plc


30 min

Find out more in our free webinar, how to reduce geological uncertainty with implicit modeling

Lyceum 2021

thank you everybody for joining us on

Lyceum 21 today,

my name is Ben whistler, I’m tech

services Manager with sold gold


and everybody my name’s steve law and I’m

senior technical lead for geology

with sequins

and then is going to start the presentation.

So today we will describe

how utilization of

sequence um Central

server and leapfrog

geo and leapfrog edge software

has enabled sold gold

to implement a systematic process

for updating

um real time geological

models and the

associated mineral resource


Um and


so as you can see uh

the title of the presentation

suggests that it’s the integration of

sequence leapfrog geo and leapfrog edge

to systematize internal resource


um at the Kampala for free

copper gold deposit in cascabel,

which is in Northern Ecuador and it’s also

being applied to other projects held by the

company in Ecuador, some of which are nearing

resource estimation stage

as we speak

next slide,

uh sole goal is fueling this sustainable

future with copper. The world needs copper

and the casket. Bell copper gold

project in Northern Ecuador

is the flagship of sole Goal PLC,

which is a leading exploration company

focused on the discovery definition

and development

of world class copper gold deposits.

In 2018

sold gold was recognized by mines

and money for him as an example of

excellence in the industry

and continues to strive to deliver objectives

sufficiently and in the interests of shareholders.

Sole goal is the largest and most

active uh concession

holder in Ecuador

and we aggressively explore

the length and breadth of

the entire country, which is highly


a portion of the Andean


Sell Gold holds an 85%

registered and beneficial interest in answer

The Cascabel licenses 100%

owned by answer and sole goal is

listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange and

also the London Stock Exchange.

Uh The situation, so here

we are in Northern Ecuador um

The project is hosted within ECE

and rocks of the Andean copperbelt

and that particular medalla

genic sequence is responsible for

large percentages of the world’s copper

and gold. The Apollo deposit is

sold gold flagship asset and

it’s actually one of the largest independent

copper and gold development assets

globally and regarded widely

as a tier one

exploration success

and probably one of the top three

copper and gold projects on

the planet. In the last decade

we’re very proud of.

The current shareholder register reflects

significant interest in cascabel

amongst major mining houses including

BHP and Newcrest major shareholders.

The al Paula deposit is located

within the western cordillera of

Ecuador, which again

is in the heavily endowed and in copperbelt.

Um And in fact

the indian culpability is renowned as the

base for nearly half the world’s copper production.

The project area at

castel hosts mineralization

of sn age within sn

aged intrusions. Um

And this is also the same age as numerous

Tier one deposits throughout

the indian papa belt particularly

uh of note, some of the giant

Chilean deposits

to the south. Uh The

Apollo deposit lies central

to a cluster

of essen aged poor freeze,

which is fairly typical

um of large deposits

And um a number

of prospects also exist within

that cluster, including the Taniyama America

and Aguinaga, poor free copper

and gold deposits. And we

as a company have completed over

260,000 m

of diamond drilling at the basketball

project thus far

using directional diamond drilling techniques.

And that much drilling has brought us very

close to um completion

of pre feasibility studies,

you know, uh

now in terms of modeling

workflows and hosting

all the data within one

major project, which is what we’re doing at

the moment.

Um the site team is continually

engaged in advancing the understanding

of poor free systems at cascabel

and a combination of sequence solutions

using leapfrog geo and leapfrog

edge with sequin central

of course

um are in use now

using secret sequence central

for model management means

that projects are shared amongst the team,

our team of geoscientists and

this single source of truth

um allows

beneficial discourse between,

say a management group that might be in

London or Brisbane and

the site team in Ecuador


a key component has been leapfrog

Edge and

internal resource estimations

which the company performs


and leapfrog Edge has an

extension is actually an extension

to Electoral geo and so Edge

links directly and dynamically with

electoral geo project which is where all

the models are

and it means it can rapidly update

with new information as drilling continues,

enabling the team to produce

what really could be called real time

resource estimations.

Um geologists are able to simply

publish an updated leapfrog

geo project

utilizing the latest trillion data

to central and then open the

link estimation leapfrog

edge project

and basically just right click

on any of the measures that have been updated.

For example domain shells and

upload the latest

geology model from that branch into the

estimation project.

So what that does for us is a dynamically

runs a resource estimate for us.

The remaining quality control required

thereafter is to review the vari

ah graffiti and and estimation search

parameters of course and

finalized model validation and

and there we go we have a quality outcome for

internal reviews. Obviously

if you’re a mid tier

and growing company like sole goal

that that’s made a significant discovery

and you’re in the spotlight. Um


the quality and results of a

mineral resource estimate,

especially early ones

um is absolutely critical. So

being able to have an early idea

um of what a mineral resource

estimate result might be a huge, hugely

beneficial for sole goal

as a company.

Um This is just a quick example

of what leapfrog can do. These are geological


of an open pit and underneath

a block cave at the el Pollo

deposit and on the right you can see

the alteration models. So

it’s just a nice visual to give you an idea

of how powerful leap from G. I can

be and

and there’s the integration with leapfrog edge

and so thank you for your

attention, I’ll hand over now

for the technical aspects

of the leapfrog edge and mineral

resource estimation with

steve Law, senior technical lead

geology at sequence.

Thanks Ben.

We first set up the edge model in september

2018 and

both the edge and leapfrog

geo models are held within sequence. Central

sequence Central has the capability of

doing quite a few different workflows

but we set up a fairly simple workflow

based on skill differentiation

in this case it meant we build a separate

geology branch and a separate

resource block model branch

in each one the geologist works on the

geology models and

the previous versions are

stored and recorded for all time

and the latest iteration is always

at the top of the branch

correspondingly in the estimation

branch we build

the block models and these are dynamically

linked across to the volumes

within the geology model. So as

the geology model gets updated,

we load the latest

uh domains across from there

into the estimation project.

And then the block model

will update

the dynamic linking functionality of leapfrog

Geo to leapfrog edge provides

a significant benefit in terms of the time


to update a resource estimate

combining with sequence. Central allows even

further productivity and collaboration


The setup can be used from the preliminary

economic assessment right through

and two including production.

Next slide, Please

talk a little bit about the actual

methodology behind

these processes. So the geology

model so cold usually from geo

to undertake three D. Geological modeling

at the Alcala deposit.

This work was based on hand drawn

cross sectional and level plan interpretations

of mythologies, intrusive

phases and courts for an abundance,

mythological modeling of intrusive phases

and host rocks as well as strata,

graphic modeling of volcanic host rocks,

the vein abundance modeling of B type quartz


and then there are mineralization models of copper

and gold at high medium

and low guide

grade, sorry, guidance envelopes

at different cutoffs of 1.50

point 70.15

copper equivalents percentages.

A lot of work into the geological

understanding. And it was a

consultant named steve Garwin, who is well known

in poor free deposits, used

the anaconda method to

work on the geometrical understanding

of the deposit and its internal timing

relationships between rock phases veins

and copper gold grades.

And this was collated into hand

drawn cross sections around 70

m spacings

on an orientated northeast and

centered upon a northwest trending baseline

Hand drawn level plans where it approximately

200 m levels throughout the deposit.

This work was then taken through

into the three D. modeling

of Leapfrog Geo and

the resultant volumes

were compared against the original cross sections,

et cetera and they match quite


um leapfrog geo allows you to

use the data inherently, but also

you can modify with

your own poly lines afterwards

to make the shapes as accurate

as you need to represent your deposit.

In the mythology model, the major rock types

of the cascabel tenement consists

of a tertiary sequence of anti Semitic

Lovas and volcano sedimentary


A series of horn blend bearing, die rights,

courts, die rights and total lights

intruded the volcano sedimentary sequence

as plate on stocks and diets.

Oh, drilling has defined

a northwest trending steeply northeast

dipping corridor known as the greater

el Pollo trend.

This trend is centered upon a sin mineralization,

causal courts, thyroid intrusion,

It’s referred to as QE 10 and

it’s cut by a series of intra mineralization

late and post mineralization stocks,

dikes and bridges

of die right horn blend. I write

court star, right tone light and

granted I right

intrusions have been placed episodically

such that each subsequent intrusion has

introduced mineral izing fluids.

And these are typically defined by

poor freeze type courts and courts. Self ID


They have re mobilised

existing mineralization or introduced

new criminalization and contributed

to localized over printing and destruction

of some pre existing mineralization.

The intrusions are typically in

place with the stock like geometry

that is elongate in the northwest

direction, but they can also have

vertical and lateral, extensive northwest

trending steeply dipping dyke

extensions beyond their stock

margins. Next slide


The geometry of the various pathologies

at Apollo is now well understood

and has been modeled from the job drilling

and it shows extensive self vertical

continuity and highly complex

intrusive relationships.

The application of the anaconda method to

geological mapping and drill core logging

identified a total of 31

likely intrusion phases,

And these were grouped into 18 major

rock groups which have been delineated

based on their mineral

realization phase and resource group.

All the major rock groups have been incorporated

into the three D. Geological model

of the al parla deposit.

A total of 20 major phases immunization

have been delineated based on relative

timing relationships and poor free

vein stages.

These have been simplified into 11

major rock groups which have been

put into the three D. Model

and they formed the major low grade,

medium grade and high grade stages of mineralization

at all Paula.

The majority of the copper and gold mineralization

was added to the system by the

courts derive or qd 10 intrusion

with supplementary editions through time

with the injection of the intra

mineralization, intrusive phases,

and there was only minor metal edition from

late mineralization and post mineralization

intrusions in the system.

Another important component of the

model is the vein abundance model.

The relationship between B type quartz

veins, abundance, and copper gold

and copper equivalent grades throughout the deposit

show a linear relationship between

grade and vain abundance,

And has been defined with selected examples

of .15%. Copper equivalence

.7 and 1.5%

equating 2.55%

the veins 4.1%

and for 9.4%

the veins respectively.

The most important indicators of

high grade mineralization include the presence

of an early stage courts, thyroid intrusion

containing all the early stage. For freestyle

vein types with elevated vein

abundance and an increased ratio

of chalco pyrite too paranoid.

These relationships are clearly evident when representing

B type, courts main abundance and

copper equivalent grades against each rock

type or group in a box and whisker

plot. Next

slide please.

So we’ve got a three D. Geological

mythology model and then we also

develop a mineralization model.

And this is used using the numeric modeling

capability of leapfrog. Geo

Mineralization at Alcala took place

immediately over approximately

800,000 years. From dating studies

conducted by Garwin album


Each of the 11 rock groups recognized

sequentially added its own stage of

port-related veiny and mineralization

to the intrusive complex and

these have been modeled sequentially with

later phases. Excising preexisting


Numeric models are run at three

different cutoffs. Copper equivalent

cutoffs for low medium and

high grade.

The key point in understanding the Al Pollo deposit

relates to the manner in which the geometric framework

of various pathologies and intrusive

bodies. Subsequently controlled the successive

geometries and donation of the poor french

style courts vein abundance.

And this correlates very

well with the distribution of copper

and gold.

Yeah. Next stage

please. Oops.

Yeah. So we have a underlying

mythology model and an underlying

method mineralization model,

leapfrog has a combined model

functionality where these two are joined together

and you end up with

multiple domains based

on grade and mythology.

These are the domains that are brought across from

the geology model via direct link

into the estimation project

using leapfrog central.

Yeah, estimation domains

have subsequently been identified

or simplified by combining the

model features in a manner which demonstrates

the relationship between grade and the

geological history of the deposit.

So they are based on geologic knowledge but

also using statistical

analysis. Using the concept of stationary

T leapfrogged

utilizes ordinary creaking

to estimate the domains.

The way the grouping has been set up is

that changes can be made easily in the

future. So if they’re different combinations

of required of the mineralization

and mythology volumes as

new information comes through, then

we can modify the process

within leapfrog edge

each of the domains. KZ two KZ KZ

002 KZ 10 are

independently run for copper,

gold, silver and molybdenum.

And that’s using ordinary creaking and

lead, zinc uranium using inverse

distance square.

And the final men resource estimate

is reported at multiple cut offs

on the copper equivalents

validation is a very important step

obviously. So we have the

capability of doing swath

plots and these are embedded within the bloc model

so that as the

uh new data is added. And

the underlying mythology and mineralization

models change. Then the swath plots

update as well. So you can readily

validate your data as well as being

able to visualize all the information

on the screen

and central stores the project timeline.

So a previous version of the block model

can be reviewed at any time

and then it’s going to just finish

off the presentation for us.

Thank you Stephen. Yes, it certainly

streamlines what is a

or could be viewed as a fairly complex


So overall we have the integration of

leapfrog edge estimation

software with leapfrog Geo

software and this has

been proven to allow

sold gold to

produce internal resource estimation

checks to be run dynamically

as new information is received

from the field

and in a nutshell leapfrog

it gives us the power to run our

own internal resource estimates

um which empowers

us to internally

audit the work performed

by independent consultants

and ensure they are being realistic.

It also gives us the advantage of

having a good idea of potential

outcomes of any given

resource estimate ahead of time,

which of course helps the company

gauge appropriate expectations.

So thank you all for listening

and thank you by CM 21.