No drillholes? No problem.
Leapfrog Geo allows you to easily construct geological models from any input data. In this demo, we’ll build a model from a geological map, some mapped surface contacts, and surface structural measurements.
Project Geologist – Seequent
<v Anne>Thank you everyone for joining me today</v>
and taking time to join me for this webinar on creating
a geological model without drill holes in Leapfrog Geo.
My name is Anne Belanger
and I’m a project geologist at Sequent.
I’m based in Vancouver
and I’ve been with this team since March 2019.
We’re just going to get right into Leapfrog Geo.
So we’re starting today’s demo with some pre-loaded data.
I have my topography, which was created from a mesh surface.
I have a geological map that was geo-referenced
and is now draped on the topography.
I have structural measurements that have been taken
at each contact sort of point or points
along each contact between these rock units.
And I also have some GIS lines
for my dark blue and light blue units.
So we’re starting off as mentioned.
We have no drill hole data, and we want to make a model
from this map using this information.
This scenario might arise maybe you’ve acquired a property
from either prospector or looking at some public access
geo-science data from local governments.
And also obviously the opportunity for companies
to do their own geological mapping campaigns.
And you want to analyze your information in a 3D format.
So I would like to start my model but first I do need
to capture all the data.
Or first I want to capture all the data
that is displayed here.
We have our contact information as mentioned,
in structural disks but I don’t have any information
for the fault yet.
So I’d like to digitize my fault
and then we can start our geological model.
So it’s easy enough to digitize the fault.
I’m just going to start by making a GIS line.
As with Leapfrog Geo and most sort of activities new icons
will appear in my toolbar that will allow me
to create this GIS line.
I can just trace it out to the best of my capabilities,
and end it by right clicking.
So easy enough I have my fault digitized
and just click Save.
This automatically creates a fault in my GIS data maps
and photos folder and also my fault draped on topography.
Next we can see that we have two structural measurements
taken along the fault.
They’re a little bit offset probably just because,
otherwise I wouldn’t be able to see the actual measurement.
So I would like to digitize these as well.
So someone was in the field and took a strike
for an azimuth strike dip of this fall.
To digitize the fault, structural measurements I can just go
to my structurally modeling folder and say new planar data
and also make sure that it is for my fault.
And to capture this information I just need
to create a structural disk.
I’ll make sure it’s on my fault.
So I just click and drag and try and align my azimuth
with the azimuth of the measurement on the map.
And I can type in my dip.
So 65, I could type in my azimuth if I knew
the exact measurement there, but instead I’ll just try
and match the alignment of my structural disk
with the measurement on the map.
I can type in 60, for my dip, and save.
So just easy as that, you know, we don’t need drill holes
we already have the information to build our fault
with the GIS line and our structural disk.
I can now create my geological model.
So I can just go to my geological model folders,
right click, a new geological model.
Surface resolution can be 50.
I want to make sure that my boundary
for my model only extends to the map.
Extends this way I’m not projecting my sort of calculations.
That’s where the map is and just make it
a little bit deeper at the end.
I’m going to name this green fields project.
And click okay.
We can see a processing as well, so often with Leapfrog Geo
when you are, when you create a new surface or add
some new information you will see the processing panel go.
For my geological model I have a boundary
which is now clipped by my topography.
And since we didn’t bring in drill holes I also,
so I have the startings of a geological model
but I don’t yet have my lithologies yet because
I didn’t create a base table for my geological model.
So I just in this particular case
I can enter in my lithologies manually.
We are going to just start by naming,
we’re just going to name them by their color.
Yellow, and I’m doing this in chronological order.
So I’ve gone from youngest to oldest.
Once again to help us model I am going to pick
this corresponding color for my corresponding unit.
I find it easiest at least in this particular case
to just click pink color.
So now we have our framework for the model.
What we will be doing next is creating surfaces
that will be cutting into our boundary unit.
So we have this whole just massive volume per se
and if you can imagine that it’s like clay
and we’re going to just start cutting it up
into different lithological units and boundaries.
I’m going to start by actually splitting my model in two.
So I’m going to actually cut it by the fault which will
separate my models into an east and a west block.
So I’m just going to right click on fault system
and say new fault.
I did create my fault with both a GIS line.
I have information for both the GIS line
and structural disks.
I can start creating my folder with either option
but for now I’ll start with my structural disks.
And I’m just going to turn off exactly band
so we can see that fault a bit better.
So now we do have a line for our fault.
But as we can see it doesn’t quite follow the GIS line
because I haven’t yet told it to follow the GIS line.
So again, easy to create structural data
but also pretty easy to edit and adjust it.
So for this fault I can just right click on my fault line
and say add information and I’ll add my GIS line.
Make sure I pick my fault on topography,
and we can see that fault adjusts to typography.
So before it was just connecting the two structural disks
and now it follows the line that I traced on the map.
Again, as I mentioned we’re going to separate
this one model into two.
So I just want to activate my fault system.
I click okay, and we’ll see
in my project tree two fault blocks will appear.
So it’s now been cut by the fault
and we have two distinct blocks.
I activated my fault.
So my approach is to split this model.
I’m going to start by modeling my west block first
rather than my east block.
We can see the mythologies are quite similar in both
which will be beneficial for us and I can show.
Even though I’m starting with my west block I have
a little trick later on
to easily get my east block up to date.
I can figure out which block is which.
So my west block is my fault block two and my east block
is my fault block one.
So I want to start my modeling in this west block
which is my fault block two.
We have these four units
are green, pink, orange, and yellow.
I’m going to start by creating surfaces
for these four units.
As I mentioned previously we’re going to use these surfaces
to cut up this sort of boundary block.
And with four units we need three surfaces.
So I’m going to start with a deposit surface
and say new deposit from structural data.
I can tell Leapfrog Geo which unit is older
or younger than the other.
So in this particular case my pink is younger than my green.
And I’d like to use the pink
and green structural measurements
that my geologist made in the field.
So I dragged that surface in
and it is now cutting through this volume.
I can do this again for our orange to pink.
So new deposit from structural data, orange
is younger than pink.
Make sure to pick the proper measurements.
And once again we have a surface generated
along that contact point that cuts through our volume.
And so for the last one new deposit from structural data.
I’m going to do my yellow to orange contact and surface.
I can drag that in.
Drag the surface in and now we have all three surfaces
for all those units.
We’ll start right now by activating these surfaces
to create output volumes.
So right now our output volumes are unknown.
We don’t have any but once we activate
these surfaces same as our fault.
I just need to click the check mark and say okay
and make sure they were in chronological order
which they were.
And now we will see four different output volumes generated.
So to make it easier
to view these I’ll just drag them all in.
And there we go.
We have a piece of our initial block model.
And that looks pretty good to me.
I guess the only thing that we have to do now is look
at our blue units, so we have our blue on topography
and our light blue GIS lines.
We can see on the map there were no structural measurements
made at these contact points.
I guess also important
to be aware of what’s going on geologically.
So here we have a little bit of an angular unconformity.
So it looks like we have an original surface
maybe a little bit of geologically, you know,
a transgression regression cycle going on.
So in terms of this particular surface to create
for my blue units I’m going to use an erosional surface.
So I can start in my surface chronology
and say new erosion from GIS vector data.
And I can use just my GIS line that’s on the topography.
And I’ll pick my dark blue is younger than unknown.
For this particular case as well I’m going to stick
with my psychomythology being unknown
because my dark blue contacts multiple units I wanted
to take into account all those units rather than just one.
So I can say okay.
And we can see our surface is generating.
There we go.
So next I’d like to do my light blue as well.
So I’ll go with new erosion.
From new erosion, from GIS vector data
and I’ll pick that light blue.
And in this case I can say my light blue is younger
than my dark blue because my light blue unit
only touches my dark blue.
So I can say okay.
And I can drag my new surface into the scene as well.
So we can see we have these surfaces now
but we haven’t again activated them.
So Leapfrog Geo doesn’t know yet to create volumes
from them where to cut or other volumes by these surfaces.
Just need to double click on surface chronology and activate
these two surfaces and we’ll see these volumes adjust.
And we’ll also have two new volumes in our output volumes.
So we’ll get a dark blue and light blue volumes
and we’ll see the top of our other units disappear.
So now they have a flat cut off.
And if I just drag these two volumes in,
we now have our dark and light blue units.
Oh, if I look at my map again I can certainly see
that my west block is quite accurate.
So I’ve got my units all lining up and made
from depositional surfaces and then also erosions
for the blue units
which are just lying on top of our other lithologies.
So I’ve mapped the west side this west block now.
For our fall block one or east block we still
just have sort of blank data.
If you remember I mentioned a trick though.
So again, pretty lucky I can just go
to my surface chronology in the block I already modeled
and I can right click and say copy chronology two.
And it knows my only other block in this model
is my fault block one.
So I’ll click okay.
So what Leapfrog Geo doing now is it’s quickly
taking all those roles I just applied in my west block
and applying them to all those similar boundaries
in the east block.
So it’s going to take because we have
our structural information in both sides of the fault.
It can now create surfaces and output volumes
for this east side without me having
to go through and create all those rules again.
And there we go.
So it already brought it into the scene and if I just
turn my map back on and toggle
in between it looks pretty similar to me.
So that looks great.
We made our map, we made our model from our map.
So didn’t have any drill holes, it was nice and quick.
So I hope this helped provide some insight
into Leapfrog Geo’s capabilities.
Please feel free to ask questions now and type them
now we’ll continue to take them,
but that’s the end of the demo for now.
So Sarah, do we have any questions that came out?
<v Sarah>Hey, can you hear me okay?</v>
<v Sarah>Yeah, great thanks.</v>
Thanks for that demo.
I do have a few questions that popped up.
So first one is, if I had some downhaul structural data
obviously this was from some mapping but if I had some
from my drill called can I use it in a model in Leapfrog?
<v Anne>Yeah, yeah absolutely.</v>
So obviously, we don’t have draw holes in this model
to show but certainly when you have drill holes
in a project structural data can easily be brought in.
So added to the drill holes just by importing
the structural information to the drill holes folder.
These input like these inputs obviously need a depth.
So a depth at which they were taken in the drill hole
and then either a sorry, azimuth or dip or an alpha beta.
And from there you can view them in the draw holes
and also create syrinx from the information and obviously
just use it further for any structural calculations.
<v Sarah>Great, thanks for that.</v>
Another question, can you draw cross-sections as inputs?
So can you import cross-sections into Leapfrog and then use
that to add to your geological model in your interpretation?
<v Anne>Yeah and Sarah please feel free</v>
to add anything here.
So we can bring in import cross sections and view them
in our scene
when they’re sort of a geo-tiff and geo-referenced.
And then we could also trace those contact lines
within the sections to create those sort of GIS lines
that we created these surfaces from.
Sarah do you have anything to add for that?
<v Sarah>No that’s definitely true the other thing,</v>
the opposite of what you can do there
is actually create the cross sections within Leapfrog.
So if you’ve built a conceptual 3D model
like this we can then use Leapfrog to cut this model up.
Create the sections and then you can do
further interpretation work on that on paper
if you print them out or anything like that.
So it’s really easy to move between 2D and 3D space
in Leapfrog I suppose which is where I’m going with that.
Okay, one last question that’s popped up is,
how does Leapfrog calculate the offset along that fault.
<v Anne>Oh, that’s a good question.</v>
Leapfrog does not calculate the offset along the fault.
So when we activated the fault what we actually did
was told Leapfrog to disassociate essentially one side
from the other.
So instead of actually taking into account the fault
and instead just looks at the data on either side
of the fault completely separate from the other.
So I guess in this particular case
we had some good data capture in the field.
So we have some contact points, pretty close to our faults,
showing the sort of dip
or striking dip of those contact points as well.
And all that geo does is it takes that information.
So first on that west block it took all the information
and created our surfaces only with the input
in the west block, and then it did the same thing
for only the input on our east block.
So certainly, you know, it does our data capture
in this particular case was great.
So we are getting this sort of offshoot up top
into our model.
But yeah it actually doesn’t look at offset at all,
I guess if you were looking to know how much offset
there was in between the two fall blocks you could
as a rough tool just use a ruler to drag it out.
But yeah Leapfrog doesn’t actually look at that at all.
Okay and that’s all the questions that we’ve got for today.
So thanks for that.
And unless you’ve got anything to add
I think that’s it for this demonstration.
<v Anne>Nope, that’s it I guess like my email</v>
is just anne.belangerseequent.com.
If you have any questions I hope to talk to everyone soon.
Thanks for joining.