Skip to main content

No drillholes? No problem.

Leapfrog Geo allows you to easily construct geological models from any input data. In this demo, we’ll build a model from a geological map, some mapped surface contacts, and surface structural measurements.



Anne Belanger
Project Geologist – Seequent


25 min

See more on demand videos


Find out more about Seequent's mining solution

Learn more

Video Transcript

(upbeat music)

<v Anne>Thank you everyone for joining me today</v>

and taking time to join me for this webinar on creating

a geological model without drill holes in Leapfrog Geo.

My name is Anne Belanger

and I’m a project geologist at Sequent.

I’m based in Vancouver

and I’ve been with this team since March 2019.

We’re just going to get right into Leapfrog Geo.

So we’re starting today’s demo with some pre-loaded data.

I have my topography, which was created from a mesh surface.

I have a geological map that was geo-referenced

and is now draped on the topography.

I have structural measurements that have been taken

at each contact sort of point or points

along each contact between these rock units.

And I also have some GIS lines

for my dark blue and light blue units.

So we’re starting off as mentioned.

We have no drill hole data, and we want to make a model

from this map using this information.

This scenario might arise maybe you’ve acquired a property

from either prospector or looking at some public access

geo-science data from local governments.

And also obviously the opportunity for companies

to do their own geological mapping campaigns.

And you want to analyze your information in a 3D format.

So I would like to start my model but first I do need

to capture all the data.

Or first I want to capture all the data

that is displayed here.

We have our contact information as mentioned,

in structural disks but I don’t have any information

for the fault yet.

So I’d like to digitize my fault

and then we can start our geological model.

So it’s easy enough to digitize the fault.

I’m just going to start by making a GIS line.

As with Leapfrog Geo and most sort of activities new icons

will appear in my toolbar that will allow me

to create this GIS line.

I can just trace it out to the best of my capabilities,

and end it by right clicking.

So easy enough I have my fault digitized

and just click Save.

This automatically creates a fault in my GIS data maps

and photos folder and also my fault draped on topography.

Next we can see that we have two structural measurements

taken along the fault.

They’re a little bit offset probably just because,

otherwise I wouldn’t be able to see the actual measurement.

So I would like to digitize these as well.

So someone was in the field and took a strike

for an azimuth strike dip of this fall.

To digitize the fault, structural measurements I can just go

to my structurally modeling folder and say new planar data

and also make sure that it is for my fault.

And to capture this information I just need

to create a structural disk.

I’ll make sure it’s on my fault.

So I just click and drag and try and align my azimuth

with the azimuth of the measurement on the map.

And I can type in my dip.

So 65, I could type in my azimuth if I knew

the exact measurement there, but instead I’ll just try

and match the alignment of my structural disk

with the measurement on the map.

I can type in 60, for my dip, and save.

So just easy as that, you know, we don’t need drill holes

we already have the information to build our fault

with the GIS line and our structural disk.

I can now create my geological model.

So I can just go to my geological model folders,

right click, a new geological model.

Surface resolution can be 50.

I want to make sure that my boundary

for my model only extends to the map.

Extends this way I’m not projecting my sort of calculations.

That’s where the map is and just make it

a little bit deeper at the end.

I’m going to name this green fields project.

And click okay.

We can see a processing as well, so often with Leapfrog Geo

when you are, when you create a new surface or add

some new information you will see the processing panel go.

For my geological model I have a boundary

which is now clipped by my topography.

And since we didn’t bring in drill holes I also,

so I have the startings of a geological model

but I don’t yet have my lithologies yet because

I didn’t create a base table for my geological model.

So I just in this particular case

I can enter in my lithologies manually.

We are going to just start by naming,

we’re just going to name them by their color.

Yellow, and I’m doing this in chronological order.

So I’ve gone from youngest to oldest.

Once again to help us model I am going to pick

this corresponding color for my corresponding unit.

I find it easiest at least in this particular case

to just click pink color.

And okay.

So now we have our framework for the model.

What we will be doing next is creating surfaces

that will be cutting into our boundary unit.

So we have this whole just massive volume per se

and if you can imagine that it’s like clay

and we’re going to just start cutting it up

into different lithological units and boundaries.

I’m going to start by actually splitting my model in two.

So I’m going to actually cut it by the fault which will

separate my models into an east and a west block.

So I’m just going to right click on fault system

and say new fault.

I did create my fault with both a GIS line.

I have information for both the GIS line

and structural disks.

I can start creating my folder with either option

but for now I’ll start with my structural disks.

Say okay.

And I’m just going to turn off exactly band

so we can see that fault a bit better.

So now we do have a line for our fault.

But as we can see it doesn’t quite follow the GIS line

because I haven’t yet told it to follow the GIS line.

So again, easy to create structural data

but also pretty easy to edit and adjust it.

So for this fault I can just right click on my fault line

and say add information and I’ll add my GIS line.

Make sure I pick my fault on topography,

and we can see that fault adjusts to typography.

So before it was just connecting the two structural disks

and now it follows the line that I traced on the map.

Again, as I mentioned we’re going to separate

this one model into two.

So I just want to activate my fault system.

I click okay, and we’ll see

in my project tree two fault blocks will appear.

So it’s now been cut by the fault

and we have two distinct blocks.

I activated my fault.

So my approach is to split this model.

I’m going to start by modeling my west block first

rather than my east block.

We can see the mythologies are quite similar in both

which will be beneficial for us and I can show.

Even though I’m starting with my west block I have

a little trick later on

to easily get my east block up to date.

I can figure out which block is which.

So my west block is my fault block two and my east block

is my fault block one.

So I want to start my modeling in this west block

which is my fault block two.

We have these four units

are green, pink, orange, and yellow.

I’m going to start by creating surfaces

for these four units.

As I mentioned previously we’re going to use these surfaces

to cut up this sort of boundary block.

And with four units we need three surfaces.

So I’m going to start with a deposit surface

and say new deposit from structural data.

I can tell Leapfrog Geo which unit is older

or younger than the other.

So in this particular case my pink is younger than my green.

And I’d like to use the pink

and green structural measurements

that my geologist made in the field.

So I dragged that surface in

and it is now cutting through this volume.

I can do this again for our orange to pink.

So new deposit from structural data, orange

is younger than pink.

Make sure to pick the proper measurements.

And once again we have a surface generated

along that contact point that cuts through our volume.

And so for the last one new deposit from structural data.

I’m going to do my yellow to orange contact and surface.

I can drag that in.

Drag the surface in and now we have all three surfaces

for all those units.

We’ll start right now by activating these surfaces

to create output volumes.

So right now our output volumes are unknown.

We don’t have any but once we activate

these surfaces same as our fault.

I just need to click the check mark and say okay

and make sure they were in chronological order

which they were.

And now we will see four different output volumes generated.

So to make it easier

to view these I’ll just drag them all in.

And there we go.

We have a piece of our initial block model.

And that looks pretty good to me.

I guess the only thing that we have to do now is look

at our blue units, so we have our blue on topography

and our light blue GIS lines.

We can see on the map there were no structural measurements

made at these contact points.

I guess also important

to be aware of what’s going on geologically.

So here we have a little bit of an angular unconformity.

So it looks like we have an original surface

maybe a little bit of geologically, you know,

a transgression regression cycle going on.

So in terms of this particular surface to create

for my blue units I’m going to use an erosional surface.

So I can start in my surface chronology

and say new erosion from GIS vector data.

And I can use just my GIS line that’s on the topography.

And I’ll pick my dark blue is younger than unknown.

For this particular case as well I’m going to stick

with my psychomythology being unknown

because my dark blue contacts multiple units I wanted

to take into account all those units rather than just one.

So I can say okay.

And we can see our surface is generating.

There we go.

So next I’d like to do my light blue as well.

So I’ll go with new erosion.

From new erosion, from GIS vector data

and I’ll pick that light blue.

And in this case I can say my light blue is younger

than my dark blue because my light blue unit

only touches my dark blue.

So I can say okay.

And I can drag my new surface into the scene as well.

So we can see we have these surfaces now

but we haven’t again activated them.

So Leapfrog Geo doesn’t know yet to create volumes

from them where to cut or other volumes by these surfaces.

Just need to double click on surface chronology and activate

these two surfaces and we’ll see these volumes adjust.

And we’ll also have two new volumes in our output volumes.

So we’ll get a dark blue and light blue volumes

and we’ll see the top of our other units disappear.

So now they have a flat cut off.

And if I just drag these two volumes in,

we now have our dark and light blue units.

Oh, if I look at my map again I can certainly see

that my west block is quite accurate.

So I’ve got my units all lining up and made

from depositional surfaces and then also erosions

for the blue units

which are just lying on top of our other lithologies.

So I’ve mapped the west side this west block now.

For our fall block one or east block we still

just have sort of blank data.

If you remember I mentioned a trick though.

So again, pretty lucky I can just go

to my surface chronology in the block I already modeled

and I can right click and say copy chronology two.

And it knows my only other block in this model

is my fault block one.

So I’ll click okay.

So what Leapfrog Geo doing now is it’s quickly

taking all those roles I just applied in my west block

and applying them to all those similar boundaries

in the east block.

So it’s going to take because we have

our structural information in both sides of the fault.

It can now create surfaces and output volumes

for this east side without me having

to go through and create all those rules again.

And there we go.

So it already brought it into the scene and if I just

turn my map back on and toggle

in between it looks pretty similar to me.

So that looks great.

We made our map, we made our model from our map.

So didn’t have any drill holes, it was nice and quick.

So I hope this helped provide some insight

into Leapfrog Geo’s capabilities.

Please feel free to ask questions now and type them

now we’ll continue to take them,

but that’s the end of the demo for now.

So Sarah, do we have any questions that came out?

<v Sarah>Hey, can you hear me okay?</v>

<v Anne>Yep.</v>

<v Sarah>Yeah, great thanks.</v>

Thanks for that demo.

I do have a few questions that popped up.

So first one is, if I had some downhaul structural data

obviously this was from some mapping but if I had some

from my drill called can I use it in a model in Leapfrog?

<v Anne>Yeah, yeah absolutely.</v>

So obviously, we don’t have draw holes in this model

to show but certainly when you have drill holes

in a project structural data can easily be brought in.

So added to the drill holes just by importing

the structural information to the drill holes folder.

These input like these inputs obviously need a depth.

So a depth at which they were taken in the drill hole

and then either a sorry, azimuth or dip or an alpha beta.

And from there you can view them in the draw holes

and also create syrinx from the information and obviously

just use it further for any structural calculations.

<v Sarah>Great, thanks for that.</v>

Another question, can you draw cross-sections as inputs?

So can you import cross-sections into Leapfrog and then use

that to add to your geological model in your interpretation?

<v Anne>Yeah and Sarah please feel free</v>

to add anything here.

So we can bring in import cross sections and view them

in our scene

when they’re sort of a geo-tiff and geo-referenced.

And then we could also trace those contact lines

within the sections to create those sort of GIS lines

that we created these surfaces from.

Sarah do you have anything to add for that?

<v Sarah>No that’s definitely true the other thing,</v>

the opposite of what you can do there

is actually create the cross sections within Leapfrog.

So if you’ve built a conceptual 3D model

like this we can then use Leapfrog to cut this model up.

Create the sections and then you can do

further interpretation work on that on paper

if you print them out or anything like that.

So it’s really easy to move between 2D and 3D space

in Leapfrog I suppose which is where I’m going with that.

No question.

Okay, one last question that’s popped up is,

how does Leapfrog calculate the offset along that fault.

<v Anne>Oh, that’s a good question.</v>

Leapfrog does not calculate the offset along the fault.

So when we activated the fault what we actually did

was told Leapfrog to disassociate essentially one side

from the other.

So instead of actually taking into account the fault

and instead just looks at the data on either side

of the fault completely separate from the other.

So I guess in this particular case

we had some good data capture in the field.

So we have some contact points, pretty close to our faults,

showing the sort of dip

or striking dip of those contact points as well.

And all that geo does is it takes that information.

So first on that west block it took all the information

and created our surfaces only with the input

in the west block, and then it did the same thing

for only the input on our east block.

So certainly, you know, it does our data capture

in this particular case was great.

So we are getting this sort of offshoot up top

into our model.

But yeah it actually doesn’t look at offset at all,

I guess if you were looking to know how much offset

there was in between the two fall blocks you could

as a rough tool just use a ruler to drag it out.

But yeah Leapfrog doesn’t actually look at that at all.

<v Sarah>Great.</v>

Okay and that’s all the questions that we’ve got for today.

So thanks for that.

And unless you’ve got anything to add

I think that’s it for this demonstration.

<v Anne>Nope, that’s it I guess like my email</v>

is just

If you have any questions I hope to talk to everyone soon.

Thanks for joining.

(upbeat music)